Table of Contents

Cover: Gene Cernan during his third moonwalk, Apollo 17, December 1972. NASA image AS17-140-21391. The image has been cropped and the sky has been extended digitally to fit the book layout. Credit: NASA.

Dispelling doubts about the Moon landings,
celebrating courage and ingenuity
(over 154,000 page views and counting)

About this book

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Preface, Acknowledgments and Notes

Chapter 1. Race for the Moon

1.1 Balance of terror
1.2 The Soviets lead
1.3 The US catches up
1.4 The first human being in space
1.5 Apollo gets up to speed
1.6 The real conspiracy: secret Soviet moonshots
1.7 Dress rehearsals, then the real thing
1.8 Post-Apollo explorations

Chapter 2. How we went to the Moon

2.1 The Saturn V rocket
2.2 The Apollo spacecraft
2.3 Crucial maneuvers
2.4 Fiery return
2.5 The true cost of Apollo

Chapter 3. The best evidence of the Moon landings

3.1 Documentation
3.2 Cross-checking: the radio delay
3.3 An impossibly airtight conspiracy
3.4 The silence of the Soviets
3.5 Voices from the Moon
3.6 Moon rocks
3.7 Mirrors on the Moon
3.8 Photographs of the vehicles left on the Moon
3.9 Evidence, but not proof
3.10 Japan’s 3D Moon maps
3.11 Telltale moondust
3.12 The size of the alleged soundstage
3.13 The Moon walk proves the moonwalks
3.14 Attempted simulations in movies
3.15 An impossible feat

Chapter 4. Moon hoax beliefs and believers

4.1 How many people believe these theories?
4.2 Healthy doubt versus misinformed paranoia
4.3 Wide but shallow media coverage
4.4 Media misdirection
4.5 A truly unbelievable journey
4.6 Origins and history of Moon hoax theories
4.7 Bill Kaysing, grandfather of Moon hoax proponents
4.8 Capricorn One and other “Moon hoax” movies
4.9 Ralph Rene
4.10 Fox TV’s Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon?
4.11 2002, the year Buzz made contact
4.12 Other notable hoax proponents
4.13 The four fundamental hoax scenarios
4.14 None of the experts have doubts

Chapter 5. Alleged photographic anomalies

5.1 Apollo still photography: a quick primer
5.2 Why are there no stars in the photographs?
5.3 Why is the flag blowing in the wind on an airless Moon?
5.4 How could the flag change position when the astronauts were back inside the spacecraft?
5.5 Why are objects in shadow so strangely well-lit?
5.6 Why aren’t the shadows parallel?
5.7 Why do the astronauts cast shadows of different lengths?
5.8 How come the shadow of the LM reaches the horizon?
5.9 Why is there no flag shadow in the salute photograph?
5.10 How come the spacecraft casts an impossibly huge shadow?
5.11 How can all the photographs be so perfect?
5.12 How come there are photos of the landing site without the Lunar Module?
5.13 Why do the visors show reflections of studio lights?
5.14 How can the camera crosshairs be behind objects?
5.15 How come there’s a letter C on a rock?
5.16 How come the backpack antenna appears and disappears?
5.17 How come Aldrin looks like he’s standing in a spotlight?
5.18 Shouldn’t backlit photos shot in a vacuum just show silhouettes?
5.19 How come Armstrong’s boulder field isn’t in the photos?
5.20 Why are the tracks of the Moon car missing?
5.21 How come NASA has published retouched photographs?
5.22 How come the EVA photo of Michael Collins is fake?
5.23 How could the astronauts take so many photos in such a short time?
5.24 Why is this astronaut’s shadow missing?
5.25 Why is the United States marking on the LM so bright?
5.26 Why do Aldrin’s boots shine in shadow? Are they lit by a spotlight?

Chapter 6. Alleged video and film anomalies

6.1 Apollo video and movie technology: a quick primer
6.2 Why does the flag flutter on the airless Moon?
6.3 Who was already outside to televise Armstrong’s first steps?
6.4 Who stayed behind to shoot the liftoff from the Moon?
6.5 Were the astronauts lifted by wires when they fell?
6.6 Does video show the astronauts’ wires catching the light?
6.7 Why did the astronauts only make miserly jumps?
6.8 Is this an outtake from the fake TV broadcast?
6.9 How come Kubrick’s widow, Buzz Aldrin and others have confessed on film?
6.10 How could NASA conveniently “lose” the tapes of the first Moon landing?
6.11 Did astronauts fake TV footage of Earth seen from deep space?
6.12 Why is there no exhaust from the LM’s ascent rocket engine?
6.13 Why did Apollo 11 transmit color TV from space but not from the Moon?
6.14 Why does the Moon look the same in two different places? Recycled Moon sets?

Chapter 7. Alleged technological anomalies

7.1 Why did nobody ever go to the Moon again?
7.2 How come the Russians didn’t even try? Did they know it was impossible?
7.3 Weren’t 1960s computers too primitive?
7.4 How is it possible that everything went so smoothly?
7.5 Why do a rendezvous in lunar orbit, which makes no sense?
7.6 Why don’t we just point a telescope at the landing sites?
7.7 How come nobody sends probes to take pictures of the landing sites?
7.8 How could the large Moon buggy fit inside the small Lunar Module?
7.9 How come Apollo didn’t reach escape velocity?
7.10 Is it true that the Saturn V wasn’t powerful enough?
7.11 How could the tiny LM climb back from the Moon?
7.12 How could the Lunar Module be so stable?
7.13 How come the astronauts didn’t unbalance the tiny LM?
7.14 How come the LM simulator was so unstable that it crashed?
7.15 How come all the technical problems suddenly vanished?
7.16 Why is there no engine noise in the Moon landing audio?
7.17 How could the fragile LM withstand temperature extremes so well?

Chapter 8. Alleged physical anomalies

8.1 Wouldn’t the camera films have melted on the Moon?
8.2 How come the Van Allen radiation belts didn’t kill the astronauts?
8.3 How come deep space radiation didn’t kill the astronauts?
8.4 Shouldn’t X-ray radiation in space have fogged the films?
8.5 Wouldn’t sunlight have burned or boiled the astronauts’ faces?
8.6 How come meteoroid showers didn’t kill the astronauts?
8.7 How could the astronauts have changed film magazines outside on the Moon?
8.8 Isn’t it impossible to cool an astronaut in a vacuum?
8.9 How come there’s no blast crater under the LM’s engine?
8.10 How could the timing of the lunar liftoff footage be so perfect despite the signal delay?
8.11 Why is there no dust on Apollo 11’s LM footpads?
8.12 Why are Apollo 11‘s footpads clean while later missions have dusty ones?
8.13 How can the astronauts’ footprints be so sharp?
8.14 Wasn’t the lunar module hatch too narrow?
8.15 How come the pressurized spacesuits didn’t balloon?

Chapter 9. Other alleged anomalies

9.1 Why do the astronauts have guilty looks on their faces?
9.2 Did Neil Armstrong hide from the media out of guilt?
9.3 How come NASA refuses to deal with the hoax allegations?
9.4 How come the lunar astronauts won’t face the doubters?
9.5 How come NASA’s Apollo documents are not available?
9.6 How is it possible that the Saturn V blueprints have been lost?
9.7 Why is there no delay in the Apollo communications?
9.8 How come the Moon rock donated to Holland is fake?
9.9 Was astronaut Grissom killed to keep him quiet?
9.10 Was NASA whistleblower Thomas Baron murdered?
9.11 Isn’t it suspicious that ten astronauts died in freak accidents?
9.12 Why has Wernher von Braun’s name been removed from German schools?

Chapter 10. Alternative realities

10.1 Were the Soviets bribed to keep quiet?
10.2 Were the Moon rocks faked?
10.3 Did Stanley Kubrick shoot the fake footage?
10.4 Did the Apollo astronauts never leave Earth orbit?
10.5 Did the radio and TV signals come from an orbiting satellite?
10.6 Were the mistakes left in on purpose by whistleblowers?
10.7 Were the Moon rocks actually meteorites collected in Antarctica by Wernher von Braun?

Chapter 11. UFOs and Moon landings

11.1 Are there UFOs in Apollo photographs?
11.2 Did Buzz Aldrin see a UFO?
11.3 Did a secret Moon mission recover an alien spaceship?
11.4 Did the astronauts find alien structures on the Moon?
11.5 What about astronaut Ed Mitchell’s UFO claims?

Chapter 12. How to debate a Moon hoax believer

Chapter 13. Real secrets of the Moon landings

Chapter 14. Remembering the fallen

Chapter 15. References

Chapter 16. Apollo by the numbers

Updates and corrections

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