16.4 The Saturn V/Apollo spacecraft


Figura 16.4-1. Cutout illustration of the Saturn V/Apollo vehicle (1967). Credit: Dan Beaumont.


Overall dimensions and weight. Height: 111 m (363 ft). Diameter (at the base, not including the fins): 10 m (33 ft). Weight: 2,822 t (6.2 million lb, Apollo 8) to 2,965 t (6.5 million lb, Apollo 16).


First stage (S-IC)

Dimensions and weights. Height: 42 m (138 ft). Diameter: 10 m (33 ft). Weight without fuel: 129,822 kg (286,208 lb, Apollo 15) to 138,451 kg (305,232 lb, Apollo 8). Fully fueled weight: 2,175,939 kg (4,797,126 lb, Apollo 8) to 2,288,088 kg (5,044,371 lb, Apollo 16).

Fuel load. RP-1 kerosene and liquid oxygen, 2,034,664 kg (4,485,668 lb, Apollo 8) to 2,155,071 kg (4,751,120 lb, Apollo 16). Burn rate: 12,437 kg/s (27,420 lb/s, Apollo 13) to 12,741 kg/s (28,089 lb/s, Apollo 15).

Propulsion. 5 F-1 engines (4 gimbaling, 1 fixed). Total rated thrust: 3,401,940 kg (7.5 million lb, Apollo 8) to 3,451,840 kg (7.61 million lb, all other flights).


Second stage (S-II)

Dimensions and weights. Height: 25 m (138 ft). Diameter: 10 m (33 ft). Weight without fuel: 35,356 kg (77,947 lb, Apollo 13) to 40,142 kg (88,500 lb, Apollo 8). Fully fueled weight: 471,114 kg (1,038,628 lb, Apollo 8) to 493,536 kg (1,088,061 lb, Apollo 16).

Fuel load. Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, 430,324 kg (948,702 lb, Apollo 8) to 456,635 kg (1,006,708 lb, Apollo 16).

Propulsion. 5 J-2 engines (4 gimbaling, 1 fixed). Total rated thrust: 510,291 kg (1.12 million lb, Apollo 8) to 521,631 kg (1.15 million lb, all other flights).


Third stage (S-IVB)

Dimensions and weights. Height: 17.8 m (58.5 ft). Diameter: 6.6 m (21.7 ft). Weight without fuel: 9,912 kg (21,852 lb, Apollo 7) to 11,760 kg (25,926 lb, Apollo 8). Fully fueled weight: 116,357 kg (256,523 lb, Apollo 7) to 120,798 kg (266,315 lb, Apollo 15).

Fuel load. Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, 105,866 kg (233,395 lb, Apollo 9) to 108,618 kg (239,462 lb, Apollo 15).

Propulsion. One J-2 restartable engine. Rated thrust: 104,326 kg (230,000 lb).


Command and service module (CSM)

Dimensions and weights. CM height: 3.47 m (11.4 ft). SM height (including engine bell): 7.5 m (24.6 ft). CM diameter: 3.91 m (128.ft). SM diameter: 3.91 m (12.8 ft). Crew volume in CM: 6 m3 (210 cu ft). CM fueled weight: 5,557 kg (12,250 lb, Apollo 11) to 5,840 kg (12,874 lb, Apollo 17). SM fueled weight: 18,413 kg (40,593 lb).

Fuel load. Aerozine 50 (50% hydrazine, 50% unsymmetric dimethyl hydrazine) and dinitrogen tetroxide, hypergolic.

Propulsion. CM: only maneuvering thrusters. SM: one main engine and 16 maneuvering thrusters. SM main engine thrust: 9,298 kg (20,500 lb).


Launch Escape System (LES)

Dimensions and weight. Height: 10 m (33 ft). Diameter: 0.66 m (26 in). Fully fueled weight: 4,042 kg (8,910 lb).

Fuel. Solid compound based on polysulfides.

Propulsion. One main motor, one maneuvering motor and one jettison motor, all solid-fueled. Main engine thrust: 66,678 kg (147,000 lb).


Spacecraft/Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

Dimensions and weight. Height: 8.53 m (28 ft). Diameter: 6.60 m (260 in) at the base, 3.91 m (154 in) at the top. Weight: 1,814 kg (4,000 lb).

Fuel and propulsion. None.


Lunar Module (LM)

Dimensions and weights. Height: 7.29 m (23 ft). Distance between outer ends of legs (deployed): 9.4 m (31 ft). Length of three probes under footpads: 173 cm (68 inches). Diameter of the four footpads: 81 cm (32 in). Total surface of four footpads: 20,750 cm2 (3,216 sq in). Cabin volume: 6.7 m3 (235 cu ft), of which 4.5 m3 (160 cu ft) habitable. Weight: 13,941 kg (30,735 lb, Apollo 10) to 16,448 kg (36,262 lb, Apollo 17).

Fuel load. Aerozine 50 (50% hydrazine, 50% unsymmetric dimethyl hydrazine) and dinitrogen tetroxide, hypergolic; 2,365 kg (5,214 lb) in the ascent stage, 8,100 kg (18,100 lb) in the descent stage.

Engines. Descent stage: one, with throttleable thrust (476-4,380 kg; 1,050-9,870 lb) and gimbaling nozzle. Ascent stage: one primary engine, with fixed thrust (1,589 kg; 3,500 lb) and fixed nozzle, and 16 attitude control thrusters.

Saturn V onboard computer (Instrument Unit)

Dimensions and weight. Height: 0.91 m (3 ft). Diameter: 6.6 m (21 ft 8 in). Weight: 1,953 kg (4,306 lb).


Lunar Rover

Dimensions and weights. Length: 2.96 m (116.5 in). Width: 2.06 m (81 in). Height: 1.14 m (44.8 in). Wheelbase: 2.28 m (90 in). Weight: 209.6 kg (462 lb) on Earth, 34.8 kg (77 lb) on the Moon.

Top speed. 13 km/h (8 mph).

Propulsion. 4 electric driving motors; 2 electric motors for the steering system of the 4 steerable wheels.

Cost. 38 million dollars for 5 complete vehicles plus three test vehicles and associated training.


Space suits

Weights. Including the PLSS, approximately 81 kg (180 lb) on Earth or 13.5 kg (30 lb) on the Moon. The PLSS alone weighed approximately 27 kg (60 lb) on Earth or 4.5 kg (10 lb) on the Moon.


Apollo onboard computer (CM/LM)

RAM. 4,096 words of 16 bits = 64,000 bit = approximately 8 kbytes.

Clock. 2.048 MHz.

1202 error. Solved by Steven Bales and Jack Garman.