Chapter 15. References

Due to legibility constraints, it has not been possible to indicate explicitly the technical source of each fact reported in the preceding chapters. However, I have carefully kept track of all the sources in my notes, so if you need to know where I found a specific item of information, just e-mail me at

The main reference sources are listed in the following pages and are also useful as further reading on the subject. Many are available directly on the Internet: for the sake of brevity, I have not included links to all of them.

15.1 Public photo archives

Apollo Archive
Photographs, timelines, schematics, simulators and many other documents.

Apollo Image Archive
High-resolution, direct scans of the original Apollo films used by the Panoramic Camera, Mapping (Metric) Camera, Apollo Lunar Surface Closeup Camera (ALSCC) and Nikon 35 mm camera. Direct scans of the other films are at the March to the Moon website.

Apollo Image Atlas (70 mm)
Archive of the Apollo photographs taken on 70 mm film.

Apollo Image Atlas (35 mm Nikon)
Photographs taken on 35 mm film during the Apollo 17 flight.

Apollo Image Atlas (Metric Camera)
Photos from the automatic lunar surface mapping camera installed in the service module of Apollo 15, 16 and 17.

Apollo Image Atlas (Panoramic Camera)
Photographs from the automatic panoramic lunar surface mapping camera installed in the service module of Apollo 15, 16 and 17.

Apollo Lunar Surface Closeup Camera (ALSCC)
Catalog of the stereo images of lunar soil taken by the closeup camera during the Apollo missions.

Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
Despite the name, this site includes very high-resolution scans of the Apollo mission photographs, including the photos taken on the Moon.

LIFE Magazine
Pictures of the Apollo program taken from the well-known US magazine.

Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery
Collection of the lunar mapping images taken by the Lunar Orbiter automatic probes launched by the United States (1966-67).

Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon
Lunar atlas based on the photographs taken by the Lunar Orbiter probes.

Lunar Panoramas
Panoramas created by merging digitally the original Apollo photographs taken on the Moon.

March to the Moon
High-resolution, direct scans of the original films used in the Hasselblad, ALSCC and Nikon cameras of all the Apollo missions, including Apollo 4 and Apollo 6.

NASA Images
An immense catalog of photographs from all aspects of the US space program.

NIX - NASA Image Exchange
One of NASA’s primary audio, photo and video archives.

Ranger Photographs of the Moon
Lunar photographs taken by the United States’ Ranger probes (1961-65).

Science Photo
Commercial catalog of science photographs, including images from the space programs of several countries.

15.2 Technical reference sites

Apollo 11 Onboard Audio
Recordings and transcripts of the onboard conversations during the Apollo 11 flight.

Apollo Artifacts
Vast private collection of Apollo spaceflight-related items.

Apollo Bibliography
Photographs, documents, software, models, reference books and sites.

Apollo Flight Journal
Highly detailed and richly commented timeline of the Apollo flights, including transcripts of all the radio communications and onboard conversations.

Apollo Lunar Surface Journal
A full timeline of the lunar excursions, with commented transcripts of every word, photograph and action of the moonwalkers.

Apollo Saturn Reference Page
Technical documents related to the Saturn V booster.

Apollo Technical Data Library
Specific documents and manuals of the command module, of the lunar module and of the Saturn V launcher; preliminary and final reports and press kits for each mission.

Apollo TV
Information on the television coverage of the Apollo missions.

Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft
A meticulously detailed history of the Apollo spacecraft.

Clementine Color Images of the Moon / Clementine Lunar Map
Collections of the images acquired by the United States’ Clementine lunar probe (1994).

Consolidated Lunar Atlas
Photographic atlas of the Moon.

Military space projects of the United States and the Soviet Union.

Encyclopedia Astronautica
Vast collection of technical and historical information on Russian and American crewed spaceflights.

A NASA site that allows to calculate the apparent size, phase and position of any celestial body of our solar system as seen from any other body on any date (e.g., the appearance of the Earth as seen from the Moon).

Technical data, photographs and videos from the Japanese Kaguya/Selene lunar probe (2007-2009).

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
Sites of the probe that obtained the first images of the Apollo spacecraft on the Moon in 2009.

History of the lunar launch facilities of the United States.

NASA JSC Transcript Collection (Mercury to Apollo)
Collected transcripts of the radio communications of US crewed spaceflights.

NASA Office of Logic Design
Archive of documents related to the navigation and control computers of the Apollo spacecraft.

NASA Technical Reports Server
Huge collection of technical reports covering the entire US space program and the scientific knowledge gained from spaceflight.

PBS Race to the Moon
Extensive site providing additional information in support of the PBS documentary Race to the Moon.

Radiation Effects and Analysis
One of the main archives for documents regarding the effects of radiation in relation to spaceflight, managed by the Goddard Spaceflight Center.

Russian Space Web
News and history of the Russian space program.

The Apollo Program (1963-1972)
Archive of the National Space Science Data Center, containing documents on all the Apollo missions, including the uncrewed test flights.

The Space Race
Site dedicated to the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo projects; not affiliated with NASA.

Unmanned Spaceflight
Site focusing on news regarding space missions by uncrewed vehicles.

We Choose the Moon
Interactive site celebrating the fortieth anniversary of the first crewed Moon landing, with detailed animations, sounds and videos of all the key phases of the Apollo 11 mission.

Working on the Moon: Lessons from Apollo
Documents and experiences of the Apollo lunar excursions, reexamined for their usefulness for future crewed missions to the Moon.

15.3 Technical books and documents

35 Years Ago, “One Small Step...”. Jack Yanosov. In QST, February 2005.

Adventures in Celestial Mechanics: A First Course in the Theory of Orbits. Victor G. Szebehely, University of Texas Press, Austin (1989).

ALSEP Data Handling Estimates. BellComm Memorandum for File B69 05062. R.J. Pauly (1969).

An Annotated Bibliography of the Apollo Program. Edited by Roger D. Launius and J.D. Hunley and published as Monographs in Aerospace History, no. 2 (1994).

An Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. Forest R. Moulton, Dover Publications, New York (1970).

An overview of medical-biological radiation hazards in earth orbits. M.C. Stauber, M. L. Rossi, E.G. Stassinopoulos, Goddard Space Flight Center (1984).

Apollo 7 – The NASA Mission Reports. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 1896522645.

Apollo 8 – The NASA Mission Reports. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 1896522661.

Apollo 9 – The NASA Mission Reports. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 1896522513.

Apollo 10 – The NASA Mission Reports. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 1896522688.

Apollo 10 Color Television, Westinghouse Defense and Space Center News Release (1969).

Apollo 10 Optical Tracking, in Sky and Telescope, July 1969, pages 62–63.

Apollo 11 – The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 1. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 189652253X.

Apollo 11 – The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 1896522491.

Apollo 11 – The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 3. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 1896522858.

Apollo 11 Photography, 70-mm, 16-mm and 35-mm Frame Index, National Space Science Data Center (1970).

Apollo 11 Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcription. Manned Spacecraft Center (1969).

Apollo 12 – The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 1. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 1896522548.

Apollo 12 – The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 1894959167.

Apollo 13 – The NASA Mission Reports. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 1896522556.

Apollo 13 Television. Westinghouse press release, 1970.

Apollo 14 – The NASA Mission Reports. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 1896522564.

Apollo 15 – The NASA Mission Reports. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 1896522572.

Apollo 15 Final Lunar Surface Television Operations Plan. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (1971).

Apollo 16 – The NASA Mission Reports. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 1896522580.

Apollo 17 – The NASA Mission Reports. Robert Godwin, Apogee Books; ISBN 1896522599.

Apollo Black-and-White Television Scan Converter. M.V. Sullivan, SMPTE Journal, vol. 79, pages 621-625 (1970).

Apollo Color Television Camera. L.L. Niemyer, Jr., Westinghouse Defense and Space Center (1969).

Apollo Color Television Subsystem: Operation and Training Manual. Westinghouse (1971).

Apollo Experience Report – TV Systems. Paul P. Coan, Manned Spaceflight Center Television Subsystem Manager, NASA Technical Note TN D-7476 (1973).

Apollo Lunar Landing Launch Window: the Controlling Factors and Constraints. Robin Wheeler, Apollo Flight Journal.

Apollo Lunar Television Camera: Operations Manual. Stan Lebar, Westinghouse Defense and Space Center (1968).

Apollo Unified S-Band System. K.E. Peltzer, Goddard Space Flight Center (1966).

Apollo: Race to the Moon. Charles Murray and Catherine Bly Cox. Touchstone Books (1990); ISBN 9780671706258.

Apollo: The Definitive Sourcebook. Richard W. Orloff, David M. Harland. Springer (2006); ISBN 0387300430.

Apollo - The Lost and Unflown Missions. David Shayler. Springer (2002); ISBN 9781852335755.

Communications on the Moon. In Electronics World (August 1969).

Comparison of Measured LM/EVA Link Transmission Losses on Apollo 15 with Predicted Values. BellComm Memorandum for File B71 12012. I.I. Rosenblum (1971).

EVA Communications from Surveyor III Site on Apollo 12. BellComm Memorandum for File B69 10020. I.I. Rosenblum (1969).

EVA VHF Communications with LM on Apollo 15 Traverses. BellComm Technical Memorandum TM-71-2034-2. I.I. Rosenblum (1971).

First Color TV from Space. Warren C. Wetmore, in Aviation Week and Space Technology, pages 18-20 (May 26, 1969).

Full Moon. Michael Light, Alfred A. Kropf (1999); ISBN 0375414940.

Fundamentals of Astrodynamics. Roger R. Bate, Donald D. Mueller, and Jerry E. White. Dover Publications, New York (1971).

Genesis: The Story of Apollo 8. Robert Zimmerman. Random House, New York (1998).

Ground Control Television Television Engineering Notebook. Richard Bohlmann et al., Manned Spacecraft Center (4/1971 - 4/1972).

Ground-Controlled Television Assembly: Final Report. RCA R-3901-F (1972).

Ground-Controlled Television Assembly: Interim Final Report. RCA R-3838F (1972).

Ground-Controlled Television Assembly: Operation and Checkout Manual. RCA (1971).

How Apollo Flew to the Moon. David Woods, Praxis Publishing (2008); ISBN 9780387716756.

Journey to the Moon: The History of the Apollo Guidance Computer. Eldon C. Hall. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va. (1996).

Liftoff: The Story of America’s Adventure in Space. Michael Collins, Grove Press, New York (1988).

Live TV from the Moon. Dwight Steven-Boniecki (2010), Apogee Books; ISBN 9781926592169.

Lunar Module Reference. World Spaceflight News, Progressive Management (2000).

Lunar Television Camera: Pre-Installation Acceptance Test Plan. NASA/MSC-SESD-28-105 (1968).

Lunar TV Camera: Statement of Work (Final Draft). NASA/MSC (1966).

Mankind’s Giant Leap. Robert Hotz, in Aviation Week and Space Technology, page 17 (July 28, 1969).

Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) Postmission Report on the AS-506 (Apollo 11) Mission. Goddard Spaceflight Center (1970).

Mishin Monograph on Failure of Soviet Manned Lunar Program. In JPRS Report/USSR: Space, novembre 1991. Also available in French as Pourquoi nous ne sommes pas allés sur la lune. Vasily Mishin, Editions Cépaduès (1993).

Moon Boot - The Story of the Apollo Lunar Overshoe. David H. Mather, (2014). A digital edition is available at

Moon Lander: How We Developed the Lunar Module. Thomas J. Kelly. Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight Series, Dominick Pisano et al., eds., Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. (2001).

Moon Missions: Mankind’s First Voyages to Another World. William F. Mellberg, Plymouth Press, Michigan (1997).

Moonfire: The Epic Journey of Apollo 11. Norman Mailer and Colum McCann, Taschen GmbH (2010); ISBN 978-38-3652-077-5.

Network Controller’s Mission Report Apollo 11 (1969).

On the Radiation Hazards of Space Flight. James A. Van Allen, University of Iowa, in Physics and Medicine of the Atmospheres and Space, O. O. Benson Jr and Hubertus Strughold, John Wiley & Sons (1960).

Optical Observations of Apollo 12, in Sky and Telescope, February 1970, pages 127-130.

Optical Observations of Apollo 8. Harold B. Liemon, in Sky and Telescope, March 1969, pages 156-160.

Photography Equipment and Techniques - A Survey of NASA Developments. Albert J. Derr, Technology Utilization Office, NASA (1972).

Proceedings of the Apollo Unified S-Band Technical Conference, Goddard Space Flight Center, July 14-15, 1965. K.E. Peltzer, Goddard Spaceflight Center (1965).

Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues and Research Strategies. Task Group on the Biological Effects of Space Radiation, Space Studies Board, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications of the National Research Council. National Academy Press (1997).

Radiation Plan for the Apollo Lunar Mission (1969).

Red Star in Orbit. James E. Oberg, Random House (1981); ISBN 0394514297.

Remembering the Space Age. Steven J. Dick (ed.) (2008); ISBN 9780160817236.

Report of Apollo 204 Review Board (1967).

Review of Particle Properties. Particle Data Group, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (1999).

Shooting the Apollo Moonwalks. Sam Russell, in Apollo Lunar Surface Journal.

Star-Crossed Orbits. James E. Oberg (2002). McGraw Hill; ISBN 0071374256.

Summary of Medical Experience in the Apollo 7 Through 11 Manned Spaceflights. C.A. Berry, in Aerospace Medicine 41 (May 1970): 500-19.

The Apollo 13 Accident, in Sky and Telescope, July 1970, page 14.

The Apollo Guidance Computer - Architecture and Operation, Frank O’Brien (2010). Praxis Publishing Ltd; ISBN 9781441908766.

The Color War Goes to the Moon. Stan Lebar, in Invention & Technology, Summer 1997.

The Lunar Television Camera. E.L. Svensson, in Westinghouse Engineer no. 3, pages 46-51 (March 1968).

The Probability of an ALSEP Accepting an Erroneous Command – BellComm Memorandum for File B69 12007. J.E. Johnson (1969).

The Radiation Environment. J. Barth, Goddard Spaceflight Center.

Theory of Orbits. Victor G. Szebehely, Academic Press, New York (1967).

Tracking Apollo to the Moon. Lindsay Hamish, Springer-Verlag London (2001).

Trajectories in the Earth-Moon Space with Symmetrical Free Return Properties. Arthur J. Schwaninger, NASA Technical Note D-1833 (1963).

TV Show of the Century: A Travelogue with No Atmosphere. Stanley Lebar and Charles P. Hoffman, in Electronics (1967).

Where No Flag Has Gone Before: Political and Technical Aspects of Placing a Flag on the Moon. Anne Platoff, NASA Contractor Report 188251 (1993).

Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of NASA’s Apollo Lunar Expeditions. William David Compton. Dover Publications (2010); ISBN 9780486478883.

15.4 Biographies

A Man on the Moon: The Voyages of the Apollo Astronauts. Andrew Chaikin. Penguin Books, New York (1994). Republished by Penguin (2007); ISBN 014311235X.

All-American Boys: An Insider’s Look at the U.S. Space Program. Walter Cunningham. First edition: MacMillan (1977); ISBN 0025292404. Reissue: Ipicturebooks (2010); ISBN 1876963247.

Apollo EECOM - Journey of a Lifetime. Sy Liebergot and David Harland. Apogee Books (2006); ISBN 9781894959889.

Carrying the Fire: An Astronaut’s Journeys. Michael Collins. Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux (1974). Republished by Cooper Square Press (2001); ISBN 081541028X.

Countdown: An Autobiography. Frank Borman and Robert J. Serling. Silver Arrow Books (1988); ISBN 0688079296.

Failure Is Not an Option. Gene Kranz. Berkeley Publishing Group, New York (2000). Republished by Simon & Schuster (2009); ISBN 1439148813.

Falling to Earth – An Apollo Astronaut’s Journey to the Moon. Al Worden and Francis French. Smithsonian Books (2011); ISBN 9781588343093.

First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong. James R. Hansen. Simon & Schuster (2006); ISBN 074325631-X.

Flight: My Life in Mission Control. Chris Kraft. Plume (2002); ISBN 0452283043.

From the Trench of Mission Control to the Craters of the Moon. Glynn Lunney, Jerry Bostick, David Reed, Charles Deiterich, Maurice Kennedy, William Boone, William Stoval. (2011).

Magnificent Desolation. Buzz Aldrin and Ken Abraham. Harmony Books (2009); ISBN 9780307463456.

Moon Shot: The Inside Story of America’s Race to the Moon. Alan Shepard and Deke Slayton. Turner Publishing (1994); ISBN 1570361673.

Moondust: In Search of the Men Who Fell to Earth. Andrew Smith. Bloomsbury (2005); ISBN 0747563691.

Moonwalker. Charlie and Dotty Duke. Oliver-Nelson Books (1990); ISBN 0840791062.

The Last Man on the Moon. Eugene Cernan and Don Davis. St. Martin’s Press, New York (1999); ISBN-10: 0312263511.

Two Sides of the Moon: Our Story of the Cold War Space Race. David Scott and Alexei Leonov. Pocket Books (2004); ISBN 0743450671.

15.5 Moon-related items, documents and memorabilia for purchase

Astronaut Store
Models, flight items and autographs. Site managed by the Mercury astronauts.

Rare books, meteorite samples, autographs, flight items and models (in Italian).

Autographs, items from space missions and models.

High-definition digital transfers of spaceflight film and TV footage.

Kennedy Space Center
Space-themed models, clothes, pins and other collectibles.

Panoramic posters created by stitching together digitally the original photographs shot on the Moon.

Regolith simulant (technical replica of moondust, used for testing lunar vehicles and instruments).

Spacecraft Films
DVDs and Blu-rays containing the unabridged original footage of the flights; documentaries on the American space program.

Prints and technical blueprints of the Apollo spacecraft, of the Saturn rockets and of many other built or designed space vehicles.

15.6 Books by Moon hoax proponents

Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA. Richard Hoagland and Mike Bara (2007). Feral House; ISBN 1-9325-9526-0.

Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistle-Blowers. Mary Bennett and David S. Percy (2001). Adventures Unlimited Press; ISBN 0-9328-1390-9.

Der Mond ist ganz anders! Widersprüche und Falschaussagen. Gernot L. Geise (1985, 2003). EFODON e.V., Hohenpeißenberg; ISBN 3-9804300-6-5.

Die dunkle Seite von Apollo. Wer flog wirklich zum Mond? Gernot L. Geise (2002, 2006). Michaels-Verlag; ISBN 3-89539-607-9.

Die Schatten von Apollo. Hintergründe der gefälschten Mondflüge. Gernot L. Geise (2003). Michaels-Verlag, Edition EFODON; ISBN 3-89539-612-2.

Lumières sur la Lune – La NASA a t-elle menti!, Philippe Lheureux (2002). Editions Carnot; ISBN-10 2912362490. Published in English as Moon Landings: Did NASA lie? Philippe Lheureux (2003). Carnot USA Books; ISBN-10 1592090419.

NASA Mooned America! Ralph Rene, self-published (1994).

One Small Step? The Great Moon Hoax and the Race to Dominate Earth from Space. Gerhard Wisnewski (author) and Johanna Collis (translator) (2008). Clairview Books; ISBN 1905570120.

We Never Went to the Moon. Bill Kaysing, self-published (1974).

We Never Went to the Moon: America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle. Bill Kaysing and Randy Reid (1976). Health Research Books; ISBN 0-7873-0487-5.

15.7 Websites supporting the Moon hoax theories

Atmosphärenfahrt-Index – die Beweise für die Mondlüge (in German)

Aulis Online


Wagging the Moondoggie

15.8 DVDs, videos and TV shows supporting hoax claims

A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Moon. Bart Sibrel (2001).

Apollo 11 Press Conference. Bart Sibrel (2004).

Apollo 11: Monkey Business. Bart Sibrel (2004).

Apollo One Accident Report. Bart Sibrel (2007).

Astronauts Gone Wild. Bart Sibrel (2004).

Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon? Fox TV (2001).

Was it Only a Paper Moon? James M. Collier (1997).

What Happened on the Moon - An Investigation Into Apollo. David Groves and David Percy (2000).

15.9 Parodies that hoax proponents believe are true

Alternative 3 by Christopher Miles (Anglia Television, 1977).

Capricorn One by Peter Hyams (Associated General Films, 1978).

Dark Side of the Moon (Opération Lune) by William Karel (Arte France/Point du Jour, 2002).

Moontruth (The Viral Factory, 2002).

15.10 Books with rebuttals to Moon hoax claims

Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing “Hoax”. Phil Plait (2002). J. Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0471409766.

15.11 Neutral or debunking DVDs, videos and TV shows

For All Mankind (Apollo Associates/FAM Productions, 1989)

In the Shadow of the Moon (Discovery Films/FilmFour, 2007)

Moonwalk One (NASA/The Attic Room Ltd, 1970/2009)

Mythbusters – NASA Moon Landing (no. 104, August 27, 2008)

Penn & Teller: Bullshit! – Conspiracy Theories (no. 3-03, May 9, 2005)

The Truth Behind the Moon Landings (Discovery Science, 2003)

When We Left Earth: The NASA Missions (Dangerous Films, 2008)

Live from the Moon (Spacecraft Films, 2010)

15.12 Moon hoax debunking sites



Bad Astronomy

Clavius (also available in German at

Rocket and Space Technology